Prescription Drug Information: Torsemide

TORSEMIDE — torsemide tablet
Rising Health, LLC

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Edema

Torsemide tablets are indicated for the treatment of edema associated with heart failure, renal disease or hepatic disease.

1.2 Hypertension

Torsemide tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with torsemide tablets.

Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).

Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.

Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.

The antihypertensive effects of torsemide tablets are on the average greater in black patients than in nonblack patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.

Torsemide tablets can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Treatment of Edema

Edema associated with heart failure

The recommended initial dose is 10 mg or 20 mg oral torsemide tablets once daily. If the diuretic response is inadequate, titrate upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Doses higher than 200 mg have not been adequately studied.

Edema associated with chronic renal failure

The recommended initial dose is 20 mg oral torsemide tablets once daily. If the diuretic response is inadequate, titrate upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Doses higher than 200 mg have not been adequately studied.

Edema associated with hepatic cirrhosis

The recommended initial dose is 5 mg or 10 mg oral torsemide tablets once daily, administered together with an aldosterone antagonist or a potassium-sparing diuretic. If the diuretic response is inadequate, titrate upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Doses higher than 40 mg have not been adequately studied in this population.

2.2 Treatment of Hypertension

The recommended initial dose is 5 mg once daily. If the 5 mg dose does not provide adequate reduction in blood pressure within 4 to 6 weeks, increase to 10 mg once daily. If the response to 10 mg is insufficient, add another antihypertensive agent to the treatment regimen.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Torsemide tablets USP are available as white to off-white scored tablets in 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg and 100 mg strengths as follows:.

Torsemide Tablets USP 5 mg are white to off-white, oval shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed with ‘C’ on one side and with a score line in between ‘4’ and ‘1’ on the other side.

Torsemide Tablets USP 10 mg are white to off-white, oval shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed with ‘C’ on one side and with a score line in between ‘4’ and ‘2’ on the other side.

Torsemide Tablets USP 20 mg are white to off-white, oval shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed with ‘C’ on one side and with a score line in between ‘4’ and ‘3’ on the other side.

Torsemide Tablets USP 100 mg are white to off-white, capsule shaped beveled edge, uncoated tablets debossed with ‘C’ on one side and with a score line in between ‘4’ and ‘4’ on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Torsemide tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to torsemide or to povidone.

Torsemide tablets are contraindicated in patients who are anuric.
Torsemide tablets are contraindicated in patients with hepatic coma.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypotension and Worsening Renal Function

Excessive diuresis may cause potentially symptomatic dehydration, blood volume reduction and hypotension and worsening renal function, including acute renal failure particularly in salt-depleted patients or those taking renin-angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors. Worsening of renal function can also occur with concomitant use of nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, cisplatin, and NSAIDs). Monitor volume status and renal function periodically.

5.2 Electrolyte and Metabolic Abnormalities

Torsemide can cause potentially symptomatic hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypochloremic alkalosis. Treatment with torsemide can cause an increase in blood glucose levels and hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia can occur and gout may rarely be precipitated. Monitor serum electrolytes and blood glucose periodically.

5.3 Ototoxicity

Tinnitus and hearing loss (usually reversible) have been observed with loop diuretics, including torsemide. Higher than recommended doses, severe renal impairment, and hypoproteinemia, appear to increase the risk of ototoxicity.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following risks are discussed in more detail in others sections:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In pre-approval studies, torsemide has been evaluated for safety in approximately 4000 subjects; over 800 of these subjects received torsemide for at least 6 months, and over 380 were treated for more than 1 year. Among these subjects were 564 who received torsemide during United States-based trials in which 274 other subjects received placebo.

Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse reactions occurred in 3.5% of United States patients treated with torsemide and in 4.4% of patients treated with placebo.

In United States placebo-controlled trials excessive urination occurred in 6.7% of patients compared with 2.2% of patients receiving placebo. The daily doses of torsemide used in these trials ranged from 1.25 mg to 20 mg, with most patients receiving 5 mg to 10 mg; the duration of treatment ranged from 1 to 52 days, with a median of 41 days.

In the placebo-controlled hypertension studies excessive urination was dose related; 1% of patients receiving placebo, 4% of those treated with 5 mg of daily torsemide, and 15% of those treated with 10 mg. Excessive urination was generally not reported as an adverse event among patients who received torsemide for cardiac, renal, or hepatic failure.

There was no effect of age or sex on the incidence of adverse reactions.

Laboratory Parameters

Potassium

In controlled studies in the United States, torsemide was administered to hypertensive patients at doses of 5 mg or 10 mg daily. After 6 weeks at these doses, the mean decrease in serum potassium was approximately 0.1 mEq/L. The percentage of patients who had a serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L at any time during the studies was 1.5% on torsemide and 3% on placebo. In patients followed for 1 year, there was no progressive change in mean serum potassium levels. In patients with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, or renal disease treated with torsemide at doses higher than those studied in United States antihypertensive trials, hypokalemia was observed with greater frequency, in a dose-related manner.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine and Uric Acid

Torsemide produces small dose-related increases in each of these laboratory values. In hypertensive patients who received 10 mg of torsemide daily for 6 weeks, the mean increase in blood urea nitrogen was 1.8 mg/dL (0.6 mmol/L), the mean increase in serum creatinine was 0.05 mg/dL (4 mmol/L), and the mean increase in serum uric acid was 1.2 mg/dL (70 mmol/L). Little further change occurred with long-term treatment, and all changes reversed when treatment was discontinued.

Glucose

Hypertensive patients who received 10 mg of daily torsemide experienced a mean increase in serum glucose concentration of 5.5 mg/dL (0.3 mmol/L) after 6 weeks of therapy, with a further increase of 1.8 mg/dL (0.1 mmol/L) during the subsequent year. In long-term studies in diabetics, mean fasting glucose values were not significantly changed from baseline.

Serum Lipids

Torsemide 20 mg caused small increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides in short term hypertension studies. The changes subsided with chronic therapy.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during the post-approval use of torsemide. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Gastrointestinal system: Pancreatitis, abdominal pain

Nervous System: Paresthesia, confusion, visual impairment, loss of appetite

Hematologic: Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia

Hepatobiliary: Increase in liver transaminases, gamma-glutamyltransferase

Metabolism: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency

Skin/hypersensitivity: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus

Urogenital: Acute urinary retention

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Because torsemide and salicylates compete for secretion by renal tubules, patients receiving high doses of salicylates may experience salicylate toxicity when torsemide is concomitantly administered.

Concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and torsemide has been associated with the development of acute renal failure. The antihypertensive and diuretic effects of torsemide can be reduced by NSAIDs.

Partial inhibition of the natriuretic effect of torsemide by concomitant administration of indomethacin has been demonstrated for torsemide under conditions of dietary sodium restriction (50 mEq/day) but not in the presence of normal sodium intake (150 mEq/day).

7.2 Cytochrome P450 2C9 Inhibitors and Inducers

Torsemide is a substrate of CYP2C9. Concomitant use of CYP2C9 inhibitors (e.g., amiodarone, fluconazole, miconazole, oxandrolone) can decrease torsemide clearance and increase torsemide plasma concentrations. Concomitant use of CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) increase torsemide clearance and decrease plasma torsemide concentrations. Monitor diuretic effect and blood pressure when used in combination with CYP2C9 inhibitor or inducer. Adjust torsemide dose if necessary.

Because of its inhibition of CYP2C9 metabolism, torsemide may affect the efficacy and safety of sensitive CYP2C9 substrates, such as celecoxib, or of substrates with a narrow therapeutic range, such as warfarin or phenytoin. Monitor patients and adjust dosages if necessary.

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