Carcinogenicity studies with tranexamic acid in male mice at doses as high as 6 times the recommended human dose of 3900 mg/day showed an increased incidence of leukemia which may have been related to treatment. Female mice were not included in this experiment.
The dose multiple referenced above is based on body surface area (mg/m 2). Actual daily dose in mice was up to 5000 mg/kg/day in food.
Hyperplasia of the biliary tract and cholangioma and adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic biliary system have been reported in one strain of rats after dietary administration of doses exceeding the maximum tolerated dose for 22 months. Hyperplastic, but not neoplastic, lesions were reported at lower doses. Subsequent long-term dietary administration studies in a different strain of rat, each with an exposure level equal to the maximum level employed in the earlier experiment, have failed to show such hyperplastic/neoplastic changes in the liver.
Tranexamic acid was neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in the in vitro Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames test), in vitro chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster cells, and in in vivo chromosome aberration tests in mice and rats.
Impairment of Fertility
Reproductive studies performed in mice, rats and rabbits have not revealed any evidence of impaired fertility or adverse effects on the fetus due to tranexamic acid.
In a 9-month toxicology study, dogs were administered tranexamic acid in food at doses of 0, 200, 600, or 1200 mg/kg/day. These doses are approximately 2, 5, and 6 times, respectively, the recommended human oral dose of 3900 mg/day based on AUC. At 6 times the human dose, some dogs developed reversible reddening and gelatinous discharge from the eyes. Ophthalmologic examination revealed reversible changes in the nictitating membrane/conjunctiva. In some female dogs, the presence of inflammatory exudate over the bulbar conjunctival mucosa was observed. Histopathological examinations did not reveal any retinal alteration. No adverse effects were observed at 5 times the human dose.
In other studies, focal areas of retinal degeneration were observed in cats, dogs and rats following oral or intravenous tranexamic acid doses at 6-40 times the recommended usual human dose based on mg/m 2 (actual animal doses between 250-1600 mg/kg/day).
The efficacy of tranexamic acid USP tablets in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in women of reproductive potential was demonstrated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: one 3-cycle treatment study (Study 1) and one 6-cycle treatment study (Study 2) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In these studies, HMB was defined as an average menstrual blood loss of ≥ 80 mL as assessed by alkaline hematin analysis of collected sanitary products over two baseline menstrual cycles. Subjects were 18 to 49 years of age with a mean age of approximately 40 years, had cyclic menses every 21-35 days, and a BMI of approximately 32 kg/m2. On average, subjects had an HMB history of approximately 10 years and 40% had fibroids as determined by transvaginal ultrasound. Approximately 70% were Caucasian, 25% were Black, and 5% were Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, or Other. Seven percent (7%) of all subjects were of Hispanic origin.
In these studies, the primary outcome measure was menstrual blood loss (MBL), measured using the alkaline hematin method. The endpoint was change from baseline in MBL, calculated by subtracting the mean MBL during treatment from the mean pretreatment MBL. The key secondary outcome measures were based on specific questions concerning limitations in social or leisure activities (LSLA) and limitations in physical activities (LPA). Large stains (soiling beyond the undergarment) were also included as a key secondary outcome measure.
Study 1 compared the effects of two doses of tranexamic acid USP tablets (1950 mg and 3900 mg per day for up to 5 days during each menstrual period) versus placebo on MBL over a 3-cycle treatment duration. Of the 294 evaluable subjects, 115 subjects received tranexamic acid USP tablets 1950 mg/day, 112 subjects received tranexamic acid USP tablets 3900 mg/day and 67 subjects received placebo (subjects took at least one dose of study drug and had post-treatment data available).
Results are shown in Table 4. Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was statistically significantly reduced in patients treated with 3900 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets compared to placebo. Study success also required achieving a reduction in MBL that was determined to be clinically meaningful to the subjects. The 1950 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets dose did not meet the criteria for success.
Tranexamic acid USP tablets also statistically significantly reduced limitations on social, leisure, and physical activities in the 3900 mg/day dose group compared to the placebo group (see Table 5). No statistically significant treatment difference was observed in response rates on the number of large stains.
Study 2 compared the effects of tranexamic acid USP tablets 3900 mg/day given daily for up to 5 days during each menstrual period versus placebo on menstrual blood loss (MBL) over a 6-cycle treatment duration. Of the 187 evaluable subjects, 115 subjects received tranexamic acid USP tablets and 72 subjects received placebo (subjects took at least one dose of study drug and had post-treatment data available).
Results are shown in Table 6. MBL was statistically significantly reduced in patients treated with 3900 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets compared to placebo. Study success also required achieving a reduction in MBL that was determined to be clinically meaningful to the subjects.
|Treatment Arm||N||Baseline Mean MBL (mL)||Least Squares Mean Reduction in MBL (mL)||Percent Reduction in MBL|
|Tranexamic acid USP tablets 3900 mg/day||115||172||66 *||38%|
Limitations on social, leisure, and physical activities were also statistically significantly reduced in the tranexamic acid USP tablets group compared to placebo (see Table 7). No statistically significant treatment difference was observed in response rates on the number of large stains.
|Outcome Measure||N||Baseline Mean a||Least Squares Mean Reduction b|
|a Response categories: 1=not at all limited; 2=slightly limited; 3=moderately limited; 4=quite a bit limited; 5=extremely limited|
|b Positive means reflect an improvement from baseline|
|c p-value <0.05 versus placebo|
|d Responders are defined as subjects who experienced a reduction from baseline in frequency of large stains|
|e Non-significant difference versus placebo|
|Social and Leisure Activities|
|3900 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets||115||2.92||0.85 c|
|3900 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets||115||3.05||0.87 c|
|Reduction in Large Stains|
|3900 mg/day tranexamic acid USP tablets||115||57% e|
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