TRIBENZOR- olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide tablet, film coated
Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Tribenzor is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Tribenzor.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Limitations of Use
This fixed combination drug is not indicated for the initial therapy of hypertension .
Dose once daily. Dosage may be increased in 2-week intervals, as needed. The maximum recommended dose of Tribenzor is 40/10/25 mg.
Dose selection should be individualized based on previous therapy.
Tribenzor tablets are available in the following strength combinations:
|Olmesartan medoxomil (mg)||20||40||40||40||40|
|Amlodipine equivalent (mg)||5||5||5||10||10|
Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, Tribenzor is contraindicated in patients with anuria, hypersensitivity to any component, or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with Tribenzor in patients with diabetes [ See Drug Interactions ( 7.2)].
Olmesartan medoxomil. Tribenzor can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tribenzor as soon as possible [ see Use in specific Populations ( 8.1].
Hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood.
Adverse reactions include fetal or neonatal jaundice and thrombocytopenia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Olmesartan medoxomil. In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics) symptomatic hypotension may be anticipated after initiation of treatment with olmesartan medoxomil. Initiate treatment with Tribenzor under close medical supervision. If hypotension does occur, place the patient in the supine position and, if necessary, give an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
Amlodipine. Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
Amlodipine. Patients, particularly those with severe obstructive coronary artery disease, may develop increased frequency, duration, or severity of angina or acute myocardial infarction upon starting calcium channel blocker therapy or at the time of dosage increase. The mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated.
Impaired renal function was reported in 2.1% of subjects receiving Tribenzor compared to 0.2% to 1.3% of subjects receiving dual combination therapy of olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine, olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide.
If progressive renal impairment becomes evident consider withholding or discontinuing Tribenzor.
Olmesartan medoxomil. Changes in renal function occur in some individuals treated with olmesartan medoxomil as a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In patients whose renal function may depend upon the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists has been associated with oliguria or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. Similar effects may occur in patients treated with Tribenzor due to the olmesartan medoxomil component [ see Drug Interactions ( 7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].
In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been reported. There has been no long-term use of olmesartan medoxomil in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but similar effects would be expected with Tribenzor because of the olmesartan medoxomil component.
Hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazides may precipitate azotemia in patients with renal disease. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Amlodipine. Since amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) is 56 hours in patients with severely impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering to patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Tribenzor contains hydrochlorothiazide which can cause hypokalemia, hyponatremia and hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia can result in hypokalemia which may be difficult to treat despite potassium repletion. Tribenzor also contains olmesartan, a drug that affects the RAS. Drugs that inhibit the RAS can also cause hyperkalemia.
Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in patients receiving thiazide therapy.
Hydrochlorothiazide decreases urinary calcium excretion and may cause elevations of serum calcium. Monitor calcium levels.
The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.
Hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
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