The following additional adverse reaction has been identified during post-approval use of XALKORI. Because this reaction is reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Investigations: Increased blood creatine phosphokinase
Strong or Moderate CYP3A Inhibitors
Concomitant use of crizotinib with strong CYP3A inhibitors increases crizotinib plasma concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , which may increase the risk of adverse reactions of XALKORI. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A inhibitors. If concomitant use of strong CYP3A inhibitors is unavoidable, reduce the XALKORI dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice which may also increase plasma concentrations of crizotinib. Use caution with concomitant use of moderate CYP3A inhibitors.
Strong CYP3A Inducers
Concomitant use of crizotinib with strong CYP3A inducers decreases crizotinib plasma concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , which may decrease the efficacy of XALKORI. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A inducers.
Concomitant use of crizotinib increases plasma concentrations of CYP3A substrates [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , which may increase the risk of adverse reactions of these substrates. Avoid concomitant use of XALKORI with CYP3A substrates where minimal concentration changes may lead to serious adverse reactions. If concomitant use of XALKORI is unavoidable, decrease the CYP3A substrate dosage in accordance with approved product labeling.
XALKORI can cause bradycardia. Avoid concomitant use of XALKORI with drugs that cause bradycardia (e.g., beta-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, clonidine, and digoxin) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, XALKORI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data on the use of XALKORI during pregnancy. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of crizotinib in pregnant rats during organogenesis at exposures similar to those expected with the maximum recommended human dose resulted in embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to fetus.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Crizotinib was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis to study the effects on embryo-fetal development. Postimplantation loss was increased at doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.6 times the recommended human dose based on AUC) in rats. No teratogenic effects were observed in rats at doses up to the maternally toxic dose of 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.7 times the recommended human dose based on AUC) or in rabbits at doses of up to 60 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.6 times the recommended human dose based on AUC), though fetal body weights were reduced at these doses.
There is no information regarding the presence of crizotinib or its metabolites in human milk, or the effects on the breastfed child or on milk production. Because of the potential for adverse reactions in breastfed children, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with XALKORI and for 45 days after the final dose.
Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating XALKORI [see Use in Specific Population (8.1)].
XALKORI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with XALKORI and for at least 45 days after the final dose.
Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use condoms during treatment with XALKORI and for at least 90 days after the final dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Based on reproductive organ findings in animals, XALKORI may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
The safety and effectiveness of XALKORI have been established in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older with relapsed or refractory, systemic ALK-positive ALCL or with unresectable, recurrent, or refractory ALK-positive IMT [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Studies (14.2, 14.3)]. The safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients younger than 1 year of age with ALCL or with IMT, or in any pediatric patients with NSCLC.
In a study that evaluated XALKORI in combination with chemotherapy in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed ALCL (Study ANHL12P1; NCT01979536), 13 of 66 (20%) patients had a Grade 2 or higher thromboembolic event, including pulmonary embolism in 6%. The safety and effectiveness of XALKORI in combination with chemotherapy have not been established in patients with newly diagnosed ALCL.
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Decreased bone formation in growing long bones was observed in immature rats at 150 mg/kg/day following once daily dosing for 28 days (approximately 5.4 times the recommended human dose based on AUC). Other toxicities of potential concern to pediatric patients have not been evaluated in juvenile animals.
Of the total number of patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC in clinical studies of XALKORI (n=1669), 16% were 65 years or older and 3.8% were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients.
Clinical studies of XALKORI in patients with ROS1-positive metastatic NSCLC did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
Crizotinib concentrations increased in patients with pre-existing moderate (any AST and total bilirubin greater than 1.5 times ULN and less than or equal to 3 times ULN) or severe (any AST and total bilirubin greater than 3 times ULN) hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Reduce XALKORI dosage in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)]. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with pre-existing mild hepatic impairment (AST > ULN and total bilirubin less than or equal to 1 times ULN or any AST and total bilirubin greater than 1 times ULN but less than or equal to1.5 times ULN).
Increased exposure to crizotinib occurred in patients with pre-existing severe renal impairment (CLcr less than 30 mL/min calculated using the modified Cockcroft-Gault equation for adult patients and the Schwartz equation for pediatric patients) not requiring dialysis, therefore reduce dosage of XALKORI in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (CLcr 30 to 89 mL/min).
Crizotinib is a kinase inhibitor. The molecular formula for crizotinib is C21 H22 Cl2 FN5 O and the molecular weight is 450.34 daltons. Crizotinib is described chemically as (R)-3-[1-(2,6-Dichloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethoxy]-5-[1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H -pyrazol-4-yl]pyridin-2-amine.
The chemical structure of crizotinib is shown below:
Crizotinib is a white to pale-yellow powder with a pKa of 9.4 (piperidinium cation) and 5.6 (pyridinium cation). The solubility of crizotinib in aqueous media decreases over the range pH 1.6 to pH 8.2 from greater than 10 mg/mL to less than 0.1 mg/mL. The log of the distribution coefficient (octanol/water) at pH 7.4 is 1.65.
XALKORI (crizotinib) for oral administration is supplied as printed hard-shell capsules containing 250 mg or 200 mg of crizotinib together with colloidal silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, and hard gelatin capsule shells as inactive ingredients.
The pink opaque capsule shell components contain gelatin, titanium dioxide, and red iron oxide. The white opaque capsule shell components contain gelatin and titanium dioxide. The printing ink contains shellac, propylene glycol, strong ammonia solution, potassium hydroxide, and black iron oxide.
Crizotinib is an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases including ALK, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (HGFR, c-Met), ROS1 (c-ros), and Recepteur d’Origine Nantais (RON). Translocations can affect the ALK gene resulting in the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. The formation of ALK fusion proteins results in activation and dysregulation of the gene’s expression and signaling which can contribute to increased cell proliferation and survival in tumors expressing these proteins. Crizotinib demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of ALK, ROS1, and c-Met phosphorylation in cell-based assays using tumor cell lines and demonstrated antitumor activity in mice bearing tumor xenografts that expressed echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)- or nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion proteins or c-Met.
In vitro, crizotinib induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation and ALK-mediated signaling in ALCL-derived cell lines (containing NPM-ALK) at clinically achievable exposures. In vivo data obtained in an ALCL-derived mouse model showed complete regression of the tumor at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily.
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