Available data from published literature demonstrate low levels of sertraline and its metabolites in human milk [See Data] . There are no data on the effects of sertraline on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ZOLOFT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the drug or from the underlying maternal condition.
In a published pooled analysis of 53 mother-infant pairs, exclusively human milk-fed infants had an average of 2% (range 0% to 15%) of the sertraline serum levels measured in their mothers. No adverse reactions were observed in these infants.
The safety and efficacy of ZOLOFT have been established in the treatment of OCD in pediatric patients aged 6 to 17 [See Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)] . Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients in patients with OCD below the age of 6 have not been established. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients for indications other than OCD. Two placebo-controlled trials were conducted in pediatric patients with MDD, but the data were not sufficient to support an indication for use in pediatric patients.
Monitoring Pediatric Patients Treated with ZOLOFT
Monitor all patients being treated with antidepressants for clinical worsening, suicidal thoughts, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of treatment, or at times of dose increases or decreases [See Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed with the use of SSRIs. Monitor weight and growth in pediatric patients treated with an SSRI such as ZOLOFT.
Weight Loss in Studies in Pediatric Patients with MDD
In a pooled analysis of two 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible dose (50–200 mg) outpatient trials for MDD (n=373), there was a difference in weight change between ZOLOFT and placebo of roughly 1 kg, for both children (ages 6–11) and adolescents (ages 12–17), in both age groups representing a slight weight loss for the ZOLOFT group compared to a slight gain for the placebo group. For children, about 7% of the ZOLOFT-treated patients had a weight loss greater than 7% of body weight compared to 0% of the placebo-treated patients; for adolescents, about 2% of ZOLOFT-treated patients had a weight loss > 7% of body weight compared to about 1% of placebo-treated patients.
A subset of patients who completed the randomized controlled trials in patients with MDD (ZOLOFT n=99, placebo n=122) were continued into a 24-week, flexible-dose, open-label, extension study. Those subjects who completed 34 weeks of ZOLOFT treatment (10 weeks in a placebo-controlled trial + 24 weeks open-label, n=68) had weight gain that was similar to that expected using data from age-adjusted peers. However, there are no studies that directly evaluate the long-term effects of ZOLOFT on the growth, development, and maturation in pediatric patients.
Alcohol Content in ZOLOFT Oral Solution
ZOLOFT oral solution contains 12% alcohol.
Juvenile Animal Data
A study conducted in juvenile rats at clinically relevant doses showed delay in sexual maturation, but there was no effect on fertility in either males or females.
In this study in which juvenile rats were treated with oral doses of sertraline at 0, 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day from postnatal day 21 to 56, a delay in sexual maturation was observed in males treated with 80 mg/kg/day and females treated with doses ≥10 mg/kg/day. There was no effect on male and female reproductive endpoints or neurobehavioral development up to the highest dose tested (80 mg/kg/day), except a decrease in auditory startle response in females at 40 and 80 mg/kg/day at the end of treatment but not at the end of the drug –free period. The highest dose of 80 mg/kg/day produced plasma levels (AUC) of sertraline 5 times those seen in pediatric patients (6 – 17 years of age) receiving the maximum recommended dose of sertraline (200 mg/day).
Of the total number of patients in clinical studies of ZOLOFT in patients with MDD, OCD, PD, PTSD, SAD and PMDD, 797 (17%) were ≥ 65 years old, while 197 (4%) were ≥ 75 years old.
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be conservative, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
In 354 geriatric subjects treated with ZOLOFT in MDD placebo-controlled trials, the overall profile of adverse reactions was generally similar to that shown in Table 3 [See Adverse Reactions (6.1)], except for tinnitus, arthralgia with an incidence of at least 2% and at a rate greater than placebo in geriatric patients.
SNRIs and SSRIs, including ZOLOFT, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [See Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] .
The recommended dosage in patients with mild hepatic impairment ( Child-Pugh score 5 or 6 ) is half the recommended dosage due to increased exposure in this patient population. The use of ZOLOFT in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh score 7 to 10) or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 10–15) is not recommended, because ZOLOFT is extensively metabolized, and the effects of ZOLOFT in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment have not been studied [See Dosage and Administration (2.4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
No dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild to severe renal impairment. Sertraline exposure does not appear to be affected by renal impairment [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
ZOLOFT contains sertraline, which is not a controlled substance.
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of the comparative abuse liability of ZOLOFT, alprazolam, and d-amphetamine in humans, ZOLOFT did not produce the positive subjective effects indicative of abuse potential, such as euphoria or drug liking, that were observed with the other two drugs.
The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal ZOLOFT overdosage were somnolence, vomiting, tachycardia, nausea, dizziness, agitation and tremor. No cases of fatal overdosage with only sertraline have been reported.
Other important adverse events reported with ZOLOFT overdose (single or multiple drugs) include bradycardia, bundle branch block, coma, convulsions, delirium, hallucinations, hypertension, hypotension, manic reaction, pancreatitis, QTc-interval prolongation, Torsade de Pointes, serotonin syndrome, stupor, and syncope [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] .
No specific antidotes for ZOLOFT are known. Contact Poison Control (1-800-222-1222) for latest recommendations.
ZOLOFT contains sertraline hydrochloride, an SSRI. Sertraline hydrochloride has a molecular weight of 342.7 and has the following chemical name: (1S-cis)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-N-methyl-1-naphthalenamine hydrochloride. The empirical formula C 17 H 17 NCl 2 ∙HCl is represented by the following structural formula:
Sertraline hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water and isopropyl alcohol, and sparingly soluble in ethanol.
ZOLOFT tablets for oral administration contain 28.0 mg, 56.0 mg and 111.9 mg sertraline hydrochloride equivalent to 25, 50 and 100 mg of sertraline and the following inactive ingredients: dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, D & C Yellow #10 aluminum lake (in 25 mg tablet), FD & C Blue #1 aluminum lake (in 25 mg tablet), FD & C Red #40 aluminum lake (in 25 mg tablet), FD & C Blue #2 aluminum lake (in 50 mg tablet), hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, synthetic yellow iron oxide (in 100 mg tablet), and titanium dioxide.
ZOLOFT oral solution is available in a multidose 60 mL bottle. Each mL of solution contains 22.4 mg sertraline hydrochloride equivalent to 20 mg of sertraline. The solution contains the following inactive ingredients: glycerin, alcohol (12%), menthol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The oral solution must be diluted prior to administration [See Dosage and Administration (2.7)] . The dispenser contains dry natural rubber.
Sertraline potentiates serotonergic activity in the central nervous system through inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT).
Studies at clinically relevant doses have demonstrated that sertraline blocks the uptake of serotonin into human platelets. In vitro studies in animals also suggest that sertraline is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. In vitro studies have shown that sertraline has no significant affinity for adrenergic (alpha1, alpha2, beta), cholinergic, GABA, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2), or benzodiazepine receptors. The chronic administration of sertraline was found in animals to down regulate brain norepinephrine receptors. Sertraline does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.
In healthy subjects, the acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of alcohol were not potentiated by ZOLOFT.
The effect of sertraline on the QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled three-period crossover thorough QTc study in 54 healthy adult subjects. At 2-fold the maximum recommended daily dose (~3-fold the steady-state exposure for sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline), the largest mean ΔΔQTc was 10 ms with upper bound of two-sided 90% confidence interval of 12 ms. The length of the QTc interval was also positively correlated with serum concentrations of sertraline and N- desmethylsertraline concentrations. These concentration-based analyses, however, indicated a lesser effect on QTc at maximally observed concentration than in the primary analysis [See Warnings and Precautions (5), Adverse Reactions (6), Drug Interactions (7), Overdosage (10)] .
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